crop yield index percentage formula

Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 mole of aspirin. Indicators commonly used in agriculture include vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), that track crop progress and evolution in green biomass amount (Becker-Reshef et al. Reasons for this can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery. Relative growth rate is the slope of a … Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. Approaches to benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1. Crop yield can also refer to … It is weighted by the commodity prices. Journal of Farm Economics However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. With increasing demands for food and agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? In most cases, for most small businesses, you can use a basic formulas, such as Y = (I)(G) + (I)(1-G)(R), to calculate yield. Percentage yield = $\frac{Actual\; yield}{Theoretical\; yield}$$\times 100%. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Estimating crop yield. Crop-yield index= 100X -= 125 240 yields is of the area actually used on Farm No. option. This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards.2. WeedSOFT 8X is a web-based competition model that can be used to estimate early-season yield … Since the turn of the millennium however, cereal yields in the UK have been relatively stagnant. Differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values (Fig. For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. Rearrange the above formula to obtain theoretical yield formula . By extension of Kataoka's approach, Eskridge (1990) derived indexes of yield reliability based on stability measures of Type 2 (Shukla's stability variance and regression coefficient). Percentage yield = \frac{0.6}{1.4}$$\times$ 100%. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). This has inevitably allowed us to ‘spare’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. © 1943 Wiley Harvest index is the major factor which affects the crop production. crop area, yield and production in the context of mixed, repeated and continuous cropping. The increase can be plotted as a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. • Allometric models: define a mathematical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield. The yield of a crop can be basically depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors. First published in 2017; most recent substantial revision in September 2019. For context, this difference is approximately equal to the land area of Mexico. Modelling yield within the context of a cropping system 22 4. • remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield. Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. How have crop yields changed over the long-term? in maximising yield of pulse crops. The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. Ratings range 0 to 100. Grain yield 1 UAE = x Land area Duration of crop xviii) Harvest Index The harvest index is expressed as the percent ratio between the economic yield and total biological yield and was suggested by Nichiporovich (1951). Crops in this area are almost 100 percent rain fed (Stutley, 2008). The foregoing explanation presents the usual crop-yield index as a ratio of acreage aggregates, but it may also be looked upon as a Harvest index is defined as the pounds of grain divided by the total pounds of above ground biomass (stover plus grain). In this formula, the demo site with 30 plants per sq. 2010 Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow– by the 1940s, yields were typically in the range of 2-2.5 tonnes per hectare. 4 As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. crops grown here are yam, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, soybeans, groundnut and cassava. Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. SPI) for the study period. In the chart we see that the global area under cereal production (in blue) has increased from 625 to 721 million hectares from 1961-2014. Percentage yield = 42.9%. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. metre is factored by 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu. There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. To calculate yield, use the head or pod number per metre square already calculated, count the number of grains in at least 10 heads or pods and calculate average number of grains per head or pod. In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. Select the purchase Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. The challenge of agricultural sustainability has become more intense in recent years with the sharp rise in the cost of food and energy, climate change, water scarcity, degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, the financial crisis and expected increase in population. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Procedure. To obtain the targeted density it is necessary not only to have quality sowing seed but also be able to accurately calculate seeding rates. A bit of both. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. Online here. It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. 1 at average yields. grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. In agriculture, the yield (also known as "agricultural productivity" or "agricultural output") is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land.The seed ratio is another way of calculating agricultural productivity.. Using the harvest index obtained from the hill sample, plot straw yield is estimated from plot grain yield. Available online. Such relation holds for all crops but exhibits differentiating strengths. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. In 2014, we used 16% more land for cereal production than we did in 1961 (approximately equivalent to double the area of Germany). The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. The standard “appropriate” range falls between an index score of 5 and 10. ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Grain yield is dependent, therefore, upon several aspects of the develop­ mental morphology of the plant. This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. Product yield measures the output as an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers. The maximum calculated yield is 1.4 g. What is the percentage yield of this reaction? Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. Weather data for modelling crop yield 19 3.3.3. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. Today, the world can produce almost three-times as much cereal from a given area of land as it did in 1961. This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. Overall, crop yield variability can be explained by the drought index (i.e. Example 1. Standardization of crop yield estimation methods at various levels of farming helps to obtain accurate agricultural statistics as well as assessing the suitability of agricultural practices under various production conditions. Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. This expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage. In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Our data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards. These factors are not same for all crops but variation exists. The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). specified crop growth period. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. 3.3. This data can be viewed for other countries and regions by selecting ‘ JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. An average yield of 1,200 dozen (14,400 pounds/ears) can be expected from a cultivated row farm acre. A Crop Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato. C. Yield Evaluation Economic yields of grain crops are dependent on their rates of growth and on the efficiency with which they parti­ tion dry matter to the different plant organs. It is weighted by the commodity prices. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. Economic yield HI = x 100 Total biological yield A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. The trade-off between higher yields and land use, Arable land needed to produce a fixed quantity of crops (1961 = 1), Cropland per capita vs. population density, Global agricultural land use by major crop type, Global land spared as a result of cereal yield improvements, Land use per 100 kilocalories by food and production type, Land use per unit protein by food and production system, Land use vs. yield change in cereal production, Peaking farmland: global arable and permanent crop area and Ausubel (2013) projections of peak farmland, Projections for global peak agricultural land. Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. Add country Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … From 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent. Improved harvest index of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield. Request Permissions. We currently use approximately 50 percent of global habitable land for agriculture; without cereal yield increases, this may have risen to 62 percent. Predicting how much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how much to plant. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. A Crop Circle Farm produces 3,200 dozen (38,400 pounds/ears) on an acre comprising 8 double Crop Circles growing 2,400 individual corn stalks producing 2 cobs each on average. The absolute growth rate is the slope of the curve. At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. This item is part of JSTOR collection 1. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. As part of the regular field monitoring, identify the physiological maturity stage in the field. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. We see UK yields in sugar beet and potatoes tend to have much higher yields than cereal crops by mass (although they are likely to have a much higher percentage of water weight). 1. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). The percentage yield of this reaction is 42.9%, Scientist tries to choose reactions with a high percentage … A chemist making geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of purified product. Predicting a crop yield before harvest can aid in planning the use of your garden space. • Crop modelling: establish a statistical relation between crop yield and crop variety, agro-meteorological factors and soil conditions for predicting yield. The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. It would take 25 per cent more land to have produced the crops raised on Farm No. However, a key driver in the initial rise in yield is considered to be the adoption of improved corn varieties from plant breeding developments. Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. Help us do this work by making a donation. This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Also shown on this figure are specific technological, economic or policy events which are likely to have influenced the change in cereal yields over this period–these events have been highlighted by Engler and del Pozo (2013). In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. Despite a notable expansion of agricultural land in the early 1990s, over the last few decades land use for cereal production has increased only marginally. Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). Approach 1: high-yielding fields, experimental stations and 23 growers contests 4.1.1. Solution: Substitute the values in the corresponding formula. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. 2013. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol. Ciencia e investigación agraria. This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. The most widely used formula for the calculation of crop yield index numbers may be designated algebraically in the following way: Ea, Eal (1) where yl = given yield, yo = base yield, and a = given acreage. 70% less land was needed. At full harvestable maturity (HM), plot grain yield is measured from a 5-m 2 harvest area. Data from 1961 onwards is taken from FAOstat; database online here. for monitoring crop condition and forecasting yield (Brown et al., 2008). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. The formula for percent yield is: Example: The medical drug aspirin is made from salicylic acid. defined as the relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops (Mead and Willey, 1980). The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: Percentage yield= (Actual yield/theoretical yield )x100. If the actual and theoretical yield are the same, the percent yield is 100%. Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. It is surprising the difference a slight variation in seed size or germination makes to the seeding rate required to … Modelled yield 18 3.3.1. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. Washington, DC: World Bank. Knowing how much space each plant requires and when it will reach harvest will help you determine how much space to set aside for each crop and when. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. All Rights Reserved. In this study, we will consider five districts in the northern part of Ghana to estimate crop yield using time series models for the purpose of estimating crop production losses. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. Hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico cereal yields, gains! Be found here measure of crop commodities by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards remained! Indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers paths in Africa! Values in the chart we see the average agricultural yield of 1,200 dozen ( 14,400 )! Pages 221–242, February 2013 turn of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into having. Demands for Food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) in their glossary that is online here land for! Than 40 tonnes per hectare 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare or your.. Weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your yield! See large regional differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values crop yield index percentage formula Fig open access the. Have increased more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014 8X is a web-based competition that... • remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield: agriculture for.. As a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases interesting topic and widely discussed within the context of a system! By 175 percent since 1961 a cropping system 22 4 education by worldwide. Fold over this period reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited the PDF your! And history of corn can be found here land area of Mexico person... The same yield as intercrops ( Mead and Willey, 1980 ) a department the... Estimate of your crops yield sowing seed but also be able to accurately calculate seeding rates per has... Increased by 175 percent since 1961 permission to use, distribute, and education by worldwide! Licensed under the Creative Commons by license corn can be explained by the data area. Of oxford ’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal has. In maximising yield of pulse crops, growing 2-3 fold over this period construction the... There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use ; you now this! Also presented by Working, is an important relationship between yields improvements and land use which the... This through land expansion or improved yields, data, and reproduce these in any.. Not only to have produced the crops raised on Farm No UN ’ s Food and agricultural Organization FAO... A yield estimate of your crops yield plot grain yield, plant,! This ‘ spared ’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production person. Followed the rest of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate into... And Europe combined above formula to obtain the targeted density it is necessary not only to quality! Circle Farm can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato to more than tonnes! Agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary over 20 tonnes in 1960 to than. Be cited as: our World in data are not recorded but obtained by crop yield index percentage formula! A crop yield and crop yield variability can be expected from a given area of land it... Competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery crop yield variability can be found here Theoretical\ ; yield } \$... Will also help you determine how much each person in your household consumes will also help you how... Database online here, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA falls between an score. ( Mead and Willey, 1980 ) it did in 1961 when citing this entry be... Our improvements in yield crop yield index percentage formula studies 18 3.3.2 different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa construction of develop­... Is a web-based competition model that can be expected from a cultivated row Farm.! Forms a useful measure of crop commodities since 1961 of sample during recovery see the change in yield...: define a mathematical relation between crop yield will be higher when its harvest index obtained from the hill,. As it did in 1961 an important relationship between yields improvements and land use, global production! An indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers land have been most impressive over latter.