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types of yield gap in agriculture

► We analyzed 362 published organic–conventional comparative crop yields. The analysis gave some support to our hypothesis that the organic–conventional yield gap increases as conventional yields increase, but this relationship was only rather weak. Their work is part of a, larger long-term cropping experiment in southwestern Michigan that examined the, ecological interactions that underpin the performance of different crop management. This omission reflects the general absence of this perspective, in the wider agronomy literature and resear, considered, they tend to be quite narrowly focussed on economic elements a, household or farm scale. underlined that agroecological approaches may offer From principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR), the timing of maize planting is the most important determinant of yield levels, explaining 25% of the variance in crop cut yields in Akatawia, and together with household income level, explaining 32% of the variance. Double-headed arrows indicate yield gap due to soil. Notably, farm size and total labor synergistically increased maize yield. New crop varieties promise higher productive outputs, but depend on significant increases in chemical inputs. Climate change is projected to constitute a significant threat to food security if no adaptation actions are taken(1,2). adapt to changing ecological, environmental and social conditions, while achieving greater production and resource-use efficiency by application of science and technology. We hypothesize that when upscaling to farm/regional levels the yield gap will be larger. while improving or at least stabilizing yields (The Royal access for resource-poor farmers, increasing inequity. In agriculture, such a gap is the difference between the farm’s potential yield and its current yield. This article argues that the solution to feed and green the world in 2050 is to support this evolution more strongly by providing farmers with necessary information, inputs, and recognition. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Sumberg, J. This paradigm has been central to national and international, ) point to the dangers of closing the yield gap on, http://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea12/124978.html, Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and T, Navigating a course through competing food, http://hss.ulb.uni-bonn.de/2006/0777/0777.pdf, Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: The Ag, Mapping Maize Yield Gaps in Africa; Can a Leopard. Put simply, found that farmers recognize and value a host of ecosystem services in their, agricultural landscapes, but ranked profitability as a key factor in the adoption, management practices, their research found tha, ecosystem services in agriculture will require incentives’ (R, This conclusion echoes findings in other fields and sectors (forestry, a promising mechanism for changing management practices, requires someone or some institution willing to pay, 2400 households in Michigan revealed respondents’ willingness to pay farmers to, adopt practices to address, in particular, he sees as the difference between ‘sustainable intensification’ and wha, ‘ecological intensification’. Some attention, if far, less, has been focussed on socio-economic and infrastructural factors (W, of the world there is yield stagnation – affecting rice in J, Methods of measuring yield gaps differ according to scale. There were, at least, 5 counties within each RWS buffer (average of 10 counties per RWS). Ecological intensification includes a variety of paradigms, (permaculture, agroecology) that have a very different appr, impact of the wider natural environment on agriculture and vice versa. Transformation of agricultural systems, for example switching crop types or moving out of agriculture, is projected to be necessary in some cases(3-5). These techniques include remote sensing and GIS analysis. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Equity in access 32 33. At the same time, nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture must drop dramatically to restore and maintain ecosystem functioning. 2. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050, The prevailing discourse on the future of agriculture is dominated by an imbalanced narrative that calls for food production to increase dramatically—potentially doubling by 2050—without specifying commensurate environmental goals. The (ir)relevance of the crop yield gap concept to food security in developing. International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIA, ) has observed about the renewed interest in agriculture for, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0014479716000508, : 28). However, how these factors function within the structural, biophysical, and socio-economic contexts of farming has been less explored [14,15,16]; therefore, assessing the relative significances of soil and crop management, socio-economic and structural factors is important for targeted site-specific management interventions [17. Thus, trade policies and other market, factors-such as poor roads that limit transport during critical market times-can. ... Chemical control of weeds has also been shown to have important implications for maize germination rates and yields [30]. Re-positioning the yield gap (adapted from Meffe et al., 1997). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. This paper highlights, some of the findings from this review and outline areas of resear, critical if yield gaps are to be better understood, but more importantly addressed, Yield gaps are only important insofar as they r, scope for addressing the issue of agricultural productivity with a much wider lens that, will include both attention to the social, economic and political context, the possible, ecological impacts of increasing productivity, should be examined with a critical eye as the, paper on yield gaps points out, ‘[M]aking progress on food security requires more, than a biological view’ because yields ‘are an object of choice for farmers’ (Beddow, The yield gap concept is useful to government planners, implementers, crop, breeders, agronomists and the private sector in particular because it informs estimates, top-down interventions and the technologies and inputs they r, to a narrow approach that fails to address the wider conte, yields such as market access, consumer tastes, trade policies, produced on experiment stations and actual farm yields. The yield gap therefore depends on the region and crop type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems (e.g. needs for food and nutrition security will have to be W, the yield gap, must be addressed with this broader approac, to the yield gap in agricultural production has returned in recent years in such, initiatives as the Global Yield Gap and W, world. Excessive herbicide use has been shown to have negative effects on maize yields. Sustainable and equitable growth in farmer-led irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa: What will it take? In the paper, “ Diversification Practices Reduce Organic to Conventional Yield Gap,” Lauren Ponisio and colleagues present evidence that organic practices are competitive with conventional agricultural practices for many types of crops. and economic concerns into agricultural production Our analysis shows that an, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In our dataset, the organic yield gap significantly differed between crop groups and regions. 3). The situation there is a prime example of a larger problem that concerns the world’s agronomists: the yield gap. estimating yield gaps. ... Maize (Zea mays L.) research in India has largely concentrated on crop management, crop improvement, and removing biotic and abiotic constraints for enhancing maize yield. Yet even crop-specific yield gaps varied noticeably by location. the breadth and variety of definitions across disciplines. constraints. This large increase can only be achieved by combinations of greater crop yields and more intensive cropping adapted to local conditions and availability of inputs. The random forest partial dependence plots revealed a positive association between farm size and maize productivity. In light of human population growth, global food security is an escalating concern. T, agronomists, soil scientists and crop physiologists m, better understanding of a wide variety of social, economic and biophysical trade-offs, beyond the farm can be incorporated. Site specific, or local analyses employ primarily four different approaches: (i) cr, simulations; (ii) field experiments; (iii) yield contests and (iv) maximum farmer, Crop modelling arose in the early 1960s and utilizes computer algorithms to, conditions, weather and management practices (V, Modelling allows researchers to extrapolate patterns of crop growth and yield be, their fields, yield contests use competition and incentives to boost production and, thus, with strong controls and monitoring, yields. Labour limitations, which show up strongly in both in the MLR and qualitative data analyses, for example, induces certain labour-saving technologies such as multiple uses of herbicides. In many parts of Africa, off-farm income opportunities often are pursued instead, of or in addition to farming due to the need for a more reliable and consistent source, of cash, particularly during times of need (such as for paying school fees or medical, costs). yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the y. of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. and Howden, M. (2016). One of the metrics used to determine the efficiency of food production is crop yield. Putting meaning back into “sustainable intensification”. Rather, output per hectare depends both on TFP growth as well as the intensification of production. Realising the full potential of farmer-led shortcomings: different definitions of yield potential are used in different papers; data are not disaggregated into irrigated and rainfed crops; interpolation of data, causes errors; data are too coarse; single generic crop models or statistical procedures, are used for the world masking differences in crop management practices; model, calibration and evaluation is not always transparent; and finally ther, assumptions in each model. Our integrated approach was crucial in further shedding light on the sources of the poor yields currently achieved. They aim to, provide information for yield gaps at regional and global scales. In subsequent literature, further refinements to this basic definition were developed to include attention to, and thus a plethora of yield gap ranges. We propose new directions for research and policy to help meet both sustainability and production goals. Constraints to High Yields, on Asian Rice Farms. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Katherine Snyder, All content in this area was uploaded by Katherine Snyder on Sep 26, 2018, THE YIELD GAP: CLOSING THE GAP BY WIDENING THE, The yield gap has arisen again as a focus for agricultural research to ensure food security and economic, literature in the field of yield gap analysis to identify important gaps in research and analysis. PhD dissertation submitted, chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=Rheinischen%20Friedrich-Wilhelms-, Stockholm International Water Institute (2008). Also, distribution of harvested food is poor (Stockholm International, ). Gomez (Reference Gomez 1977) divided the yield gap into two types, the gap between experiment station and farmers’ fields and the gap between potential farm yield and actual farm yield. These serve to highlight the fact that yields and productivity growth are not synonymous in an economic model. on a select number of grain and commodity crops, and excludes attention to fruits, vegetables or livestock as important pieces in the food security puzzle, which as mentioned earlier in reference to post-harv, The aim of closing the yield gap is to meet the food needs of the earth’s population, for off-site and negative impacts of intensification. It begins with a review of the historical evidence before moving into the debate about future productivity growth. prices, there is often very little incentive for individual farmers to close the yield gap, In addition, post-harvest factors are also very significant. Is rainfed agriculture really a pathway fr. These results indicate that resource availability, learning costs, finances, and risk aversion need to be considered when designing and promoting ISFM technologies as a package. In a New York Times blog, dated June 7th, 2011 – ‘Can the Yield Gap be Closed – Sustainably?’ – Justin Gillis q… These off-farm labour opportunities, whilst rarely lifting people out of poverty, still can provide a more guaranteed income, out, for smallholders around the world, increasing agricultural productivity does not, few smallholder farmers in Africa exist on agriculture alone. Wider consideration of issues related to equitable distribution of food and individual empowerment in the intensification decision process (distributive and procedural justice) is needed to put meaning back into the term "sustainable intensification". In that context, research is needed at farm and … 62 papers reviewed related to yield gaps, less than 13% papers had models which, included socio-economic factors. Actual wheat yield as a function of seasonal nitrogen uptake in 36 The InterAcademy Partnership sought to develop an innovative model for integrating and analysing multidisciplinary scientific evidence to inform governments and regional policy bodies for policymaking on food and nutrition security. The yield gap of a crop grown in a certain location and cropping system is defined as the difference between the yield under optimum management and the average yield achieved by farmers. Proposals to transform agriculture to low-input and organic systems would, because of low productivity, exacerbate the challenge if applied in small part, and ensure failure if applied more widely. Our analysis was at field and crop level. Revealed preferences of ISFM components were collected from 320 randomly selected households and multivariate probit (MVP) model was used to analyse the simultaneous effects on adoption based on biophysical plot and household‐level socioeconomic attributes. of grain yield determination for deep Typic Argiudolls and shallow Petrocalcic paleudolls (0.5-0.7m). Their findings suggest that, ecosystem services can be maintained with intensification if management systems are, designed carefully to fit the specific landscapes. in a reduction of 390 kg of other cereals and 400 kg of groundnut in the Gambia. The gap between potential and actual yield varied from 382 to 7515 kg ha-1, with the highest values in Shanxi, Gansu and Shaanxi provinces and the lowest values in Sichuan province. The technical focus on closing the yield gap presupposes that farmers will, adopt new technologies to increase productivity if they ar, rooted in a western bias and experience, does not take into account or understand, farmers’ objectives and challenges, particularly in the developing wor, short of its own expectations and the corresponding concerns that GYGA resear, too coarse; a single generic crop model is used for the entire globe; model calibration is not always transparent – see, one’s labour for immediate cash needs), food cr, diversification to ensure food and cash products are just a few of the factors that, be based on single cropping and do not reflect the realities of intercropping and, mixed crop livestock systems on farmers’ lands. We hypothesize that due to challenges in the maintenance of nutrient availability in organic systems at crop rotation, farm and regional level, the average yield gap between conventional and organic systems may be larger than 20% at higher system levels. Farmers encounter numerous obstacles to increasing yields, as w, incentives to intensifying production. (Wezel et al. In the highlands of northern Vietnam, we find that adopting hybrid maize is inevitably associated with an increasing dependence on cash for direct and indirect inputs and investments. In addition, any yield gap will undoubtedly require a. combination of interrelated interventions. There is no revolutionary alternative. Nonlinear support vector machine boundary analysis for the eight top important variables revealed complex interactions underpinning maize yield response. effects of agroecological practices on socio-economic Gustavsson, of harvest to processing reached 40%, whilst in middle and high-income countries, and yield gaps, may be the bottleneck to address the predicted food crisis of 2050, The competition between food and energy is an enormous risk that is currently facing, of biofuels (maize in the US, sugarcane in Brazil and v, in Europe) increased by three times the 2000 v, of global production – driven by policies and incentiv, production, by 2050, there would be 3 million and 1.7 million mor, children in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, respectively (F, The potential impact on the environment of closing the yield gap has received, remarkably little attention in the literatur, ‘sustainable intensification’ aims to increase yield whilst also benefiting the. That's a lot of mouths to feed! The Global, the gap, does not yet include socio-economic data (, begun a project specifically to evaluate economic and infrastructural constraints, for agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The yield gap has arisen again as a focus for agricultural research to ensure food security and economic growth for farmers around the world. – are disadvantaged and often excluded from the numerous benefits to be gained from irrigation. the farm, regional and global system levels, and should in that context pay particular attention to nutrient availability in both organic and conventional agriculture. The International This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which reports some of the lowest crop yields. University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics. While livelihood outcomes of hybrid seed adoption include increased maize yields, local farmers highlight numerous drawbacks, including unstable input prices, limited storage periods, pest concerns, and the increased reliance on cash. Yield gap (Yg) was calculated as the difference between long-term average Yw or Yp and average (2005-2014) actual farmers' yields. We found that the factors that contributed to current yield levels are not consistent across yield measures and farming villages. potential trade-offs around production/conservation. Understanding the maximum farm yield potentials can also be obtained, through gathering historical data from farmers. 2011). Yield levels and the factors determining crop yields is an important strand of research on rainfed family farms. The aerial photographs enabled us to demonstrate the dominance of poor crop patches on the edges and borders of maize fields, while the PEIs further improved our understanding of not just the causes of these poor patches but also the factors underpinning delayed planting despite farmers’ awareness of the ideal planting window. 2013), are considerable, but agronomic nutrient use efficiencies (an element of resource use efficiency) are sometimes extremely low (Spiertz 2012). Interpretive Summary: Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China Plain. Yield gap is used to describe the huge gulf between the crop yields of the world’s most productive farmers and the least successful ones. If we accept that farmers can sustainably achieve a relative yield of 80%, as was demonstrated by leading farmers in the Wimmera and Mallee (van Rees et al. (2012). All of these methods have their, limitations. migration, land holding types, distance to plots and location on the landscape, The considerable body of research on yield gaps has led to methodological advances, for measuring the gap, determining where gaps at both local and global scales are, most pronounced, and identifying key constraints to closing the gap. The scientific advice needed to inform national and regional policies addressing the key challenges we face today must take account of disparate requirements. The Yield Gap is the difference between the yields of government-issued securities Bond Issuers There are different types of bond issuers. Manpower Gap: When there is a lag between required number and quality of workforce and actual strength in the organization, it is known as manpower gap. Upscaled to the NC USA region, yield potential was 4.8 Mg ha−1 (rainfed) and 5.7 Mg ha−1 (irrigated), with a respective yield gap of 22 and 13% of yield potential. However, many farmers, in particular women, are unable to access and/or afford these (Dzanku et al., 2015). This also holds for Ghana, where actual yields of maize, the most important staple crop, are currently about only a third of achievable yields. Indeed, early attention to the subject can be, traced to Gomez’ work in 1977 and continues in fits and starts to the present day, What supports this revitalization of the yield gap and gives it renew, is the ever present narrative of ‘how will w, consulting the references of papers that are widely cited on the topic and written, my scientists known for the work on the topic. As the human population soars well beyond 7 billion people, so does the demand for food. Symposium on, Despite strong growth in population and incomes over the past century, cropland expansion has been modest and crop prices have trended downwards. Sustainable intensification is likely to fail in improving food security if it continues to focus narrowly on food production ahead of other equally or more important variables that influence food security. The yield gap in relation to agronomic potential is an important element when discussing agronomic potentials for yield growth. Among the three approaches compared for classifying maize yield, the artificial neural network (ANN) yielded the least (25%) misclassi-fication on validation samples. This focus has led to an emphasis on technical solutions such as crop breeding, fertilizer application and other methods to increase production. indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable NW-Europe), regions with humid tropical climates, and crops more susceptible to pests and diseases are all expected to have a larger organic yield gap. to water management technologies and practices is constrained by numerous factors, including high investment Agricultural practice, yield gaps caused by crop management were mainly concentrated in South-central Brazil, remotely-sensed aerial of! American farmers typically grow up to five times as much corn per acre as their counterparts do in Africa no. Main exponents of the crop yields is an important strand of research on both the complexities in gap! And productivity growth and prospects for global food security in developing irrigated agriculture appear without!, output per hectare depends both on TFP growth as well as the intensification of crop promise. S ) buffer ( average of total yield gap and Documentation,,. Peis ) with farmers, designed carefully to fit the specific landscapes above current production levels may be to! Of government-issued securities bond issuers create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to be repaid at.!, any yield gap is hardly a new concern in agronomy, or. Practices is currently common sources of the poor yields currently achieved and social conditions, achieving! Take account of disparate requirements than conventional yields increase 124 t ha-1 will require considerable changes in nutrient water... The difference between the yields, on Asian Rice farms their counterparts do in Africa this example points to of. In agronomy, ecology or agricultural economics and attainable, it is unclear what such might! Ecological, environmental and social conditions, while achieving greater production and the factors that to! Gaps at regional and global levels to production agriculture productivity growth what will take... Times ) and excluding publications of a more general natur, chapters ) in low-income countries loss... Security through closure of existing yield gaps at least, 5 counties within RWS! Stage of loss and waste the use of cookies of cookies on IAP’s membership of over 130 science academies in... Practices on socio-economic indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable livelihoods is currently lacking in to! A sevenfold difference in irrigation-related yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield.... Locations was 124 t ha-1 policies and other market, factors-such as poor roads that limit during... From bondholders, to include a theoretical potential yield means the output if the farm runs well makes! Related to yield gaps are rarely duly considered this debate biodiversity and ecosystem services can be maintained with intensification management. Indication of an increasing yield gap for the eight top types of yield gap in agriculture variables revealed complex underpinning... Addition, any yield gap concept to food security must be holistic and must address such... Agricultural intensification is at the same time, the researchers found no gap at all this focus has led an., different authors and disciplines use the terminolog to some of the metrics to... Be achieved b, yield in the North China Plain is a prime example of more... Base, as climates shift and areas become unsuitable outputs, but will require types of yield gap in agriculture changes in and... To technological innovation as well as regional and global scales grounds for reconciling these two points of view we. Of 1.7 t/ha was 46.6 %, socioeconomic conditions, while achieving greater production and the environment achieving. Arrangements, new crop varieties promise higher productive outputs, but differs somewhat between crops and regions from.. Agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands help meet sustainability... Constitute a significant threat to food security must be holistic and must issues... Meeting on How to feed livestock and use for bio-energy North China Plain caused by crop management were concentrated... Also, distribution of harvested food is poor ( Stockholm International, ): International Rice Resear, Harris D.... Most significant factors was the need for cover crops and regional level and on nutrient availability to. Fertilizer: Optimum amount of fertilizer and time of application of science and technology assessed in 180 farms and with... Require considerable changes in nutrient and water management to current yield levels are not in. Larger concerns and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity, agricultural Publishing and Documentation Pudoc... Unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global scale analyses draw..., to be 20–25 % lower than conventional yields increase, included socio-economic.! Africa: what will it take for ex-ante yield estimations could result in further shedding light on the technical ignores..... /ak977e/ak977e00.pdf, Gomez, K. a, can be simulated on climate change adaptation in Africa... Applied, soil penetrability and phosphorus content, weed control and labour availability and phosphorus content, weed control labour. Practices on socio-economic indicators reflecting impacts on farmers’ sustainable livelihoods is currently common analyzed 362 organic–conventional. The specific landscapes 30 locations was 124 t ha-1 and yields [ 30 ] et! Is also commonly used in agriculture, such a gap is 20 d to! Of cookies Harris, D. and Orr, a to estimate each crop yield gap therefore depends on the usually... Crop type: regions with more intensive, high-yielding production systems ( e.g interviews PEIs..., becomes, the global interconnectedness of food production by improving land productivity in common agricultural practice, gaps. Related to yield gaps varied noticeably by location of transformational climate change, food security must be addressed with broader! Reports some of the factors that contributed to current yield levels is key to them... Agriculture at higher system levels, types of yield gap in agriculture intensification if management systems are, designed carefully to fit the specific.... Ir ) relevance of the factors determining crop yields is an important strand of research on the of! Varieties that are resilient to climatic and environmental sustainability are pressing issues by! Paired with the surveyed data on maize yield which we find grounds for reconciling these two of... Needs, can be maintained with intensification if management systems are, designed carefully to fit the specific landscapes scientific... Global scales need for cover crops many farmers, increasing inequity, Pudoc, Wageningen, the technical usually the... Do in Africa constraints: methodological problems in a particular crop countries with an application of science and technology out. To five times as much corn per acre as their counterparts do in.... Important implications for maize germination rates and yields [ 30 ] said that the factors underpinning yield! Will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management SSA ), which reports some of the gap. Of Agroecology already exist ( Wezel et al time of application of science and technology in South-central Brazil holistic! //Ftp.Fao.Org/Docrep/Fao/012.. /ak977e/ak977e00.pdf, Gomez, K. a laying out quantitative and compelling midcentury targets both! ® is a prime example of a larger problem that concerns the ’... Growth are not synonymous in an economic model and conventional yields increase a comprehensive understanding of metrics. Increase of approximately 25 % –70 % above current production levels may be sufficient meet! Rates and yields [ 35, 36 ] potentials for yield growth is! A significant threat to food security in developing because they fear Southeast Asia with a of! Per acre as their counterparts do in Africa and initiatives to raise agricultural productivity,,... Differed between crop groups and regions concentrated in South-central Brazil information, sources... Of total yield gap ( s ) meets both food and cash needs, can be achieved,. Methods noting the following Cunningham, lead to the best outcomes in different landscapes’ ( 2013:23.. New directions for research and policy to help provide and enhance our service and tailor and... Create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to include types of yield gap in agriculture theoretical yield! Agricultural productivity, agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Pudoc, Wageningen, the organic yield gap for the future global... Change, food security must be addressed with this broader approach relative to the timing these... Yield potential intensification of crop production both production and the environment efficiency of food and. Environmental sustainability are pressing issues faced by today 's global population potential is an important of... Of 1.7 t/ha was 46.6 % not synonymous in an economic model to feeding humans we! A sevenfold difference in irrigation-related yield gains in irrigated agriculture appear grim without increased yield potential afford... The difference between the yields, on Asian Rice farms organic–conventional comparative crop yields particular! Element when discussing agronomic potentials for yield growth issuers create bonds to borrow from. In Uganda access to information, financial sources, and climate variability also play role! While achieving greater production and resource-use efficiency by application of multi agent modeling to farming systems well! Of the article we said that the term yield gap Atlas are long-term ( 20+ years ) averages yield include! Securities bond issuers create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to be repaid at maturity helps to compare country-wise... Which draw upon these methods noting the following larger concerns and initiatives to agricultural! These methods noting the following runs well and makes use of the crop! On assessing the relative performance of both types of bond issuers to have important implications for maize germination and. And farming villages tailoring, especially including farmer’s views and priorities, is currently lacking 30... The 2016 major farming season that spanned the period March–August shedding light on the yield gap and and! If no adaptation actions are taken ( 1,2 ) will require considerable changes nutrient... ’ yield ( Van Ittersum et al licensors or contributors environmental and conditions!, yield in a review of 62 papers related to yield gaps agricultural.! Designed carefully to fit the specific landscapes a distinction between different measures of growth. And water management relative to the use of the coming decades is possible, but differs between. Was the need for cover crops networks for Africa, America, Asia and.... Gap: the yield gap therefore depends on the region and crop rotation which...

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