The mothers of babies promptly saw their milk dry up and their children die. While in the jungle, Aguirre went mad and began murdering his companions. Within 20 years of Columbus’ discovery of Hispaniola, the native population fell from one... 2 Forced Labor and Slavery. Nevertheless, de Las Casas wrote that the native population of Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti) when the Spaniards arrived was some 3 million but only 200 of them left in the mid-16th century. Many would-be conquistadors explored immense areas but conquered nothing and founded no permanent settlements. Spain owed its mighty Empire to the wealth that flowed in from the New World, and it owed its New World colonies to the conquistadors, ruthless soldiers of fortune who brought the powerful Aztec and Inca Empires to their knees. The cross was with the inscription “With this sign, you will win”. The Spanish made fine swords and armor. They … Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. For what primary purpose did the spanish enslave any American Indians? All accumulated funds to be forwarded monthly to our outstanding authors. Russia Respects International Law, But Won’t Let It Be Exploited For Lawfare, Arbitrariness And Censorship Are Back In The West, The Spanish Conquistadors And The First Genocide In Modern History (I), Bill Gates, Vaccinations, Microchips, And Patent 060606, Putin And Trump vs The New World Order: The Final Battle, Collapse Of American Democracy Is Packaged As Its Triumph, An ISIS fighter: ‘I was forbidden at the Gates of Heaven…’, The Peace Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its Consequences for International Relations. While some view them as heroes who blazed a trail for the New World. Desiderio Hernández Xochitiotzin/Public Domain. However, the reality of newly discovered islands spoiled his personal designs as the number of local dwellers was not so promising for massive exploitation as forced workers. Columbus and the Spanish were extremely interested in wealth. Cortés then led the exploration of the Yucatán Peninsula in hopes of attaining glory. Similarly, it was done in Cuba where Spaniards established their control in 1511. They were separated from their families and normal support systems being beaten, brutalized, and deprived of free movement – in one word, being the slaves. Since few Spanish women migrated to the New World, the newly arrived settlers married Indians and Africans. That was the Indian response to the Spanish rape of the local females and attacks on the Indian property. In 1509, the Spaniard expeditions sailed to the islands of Puerto Rico and Jamaica. The letter was written in 1687. The Spanish Conquistadors were those who initially expanded the Spanish Empire. In 1519, Cortés entered Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec/Mexica Empire. Spanish explorers with hopes of conquest in the New World were known as conquistadores. Vasco Nuñez de Balboa (1475-1519) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer of the early colonial era. Returning to Peru, he went to war with Pizarro, lost, and was executed. He was last seen floating off on a raft in 1528. The conquistadors discovered and occupied the Caribbean, Latin America (without Brazil), South and South-West today’s USA, and the Philippines. Thank you in advance! Essentially, most of them were the remnants of the veritable standing army of 16th centurySpain – men wh… He already had a reputation for being violent and unstable in 1559, when he joined an expedition to search the jungles of South America for the legendary El Dorado. The Queen died in 1504, and her will was that the Indians have to be well and justly treated, but her husband, King Ferdinand II practiced the right of the Crown to enslave the Indians and, therefore, their position became worse after 1504. Here, as elsewhere, the Spanish soldiers behaved as the dogs of the war upon the Native Americans. Columbus and his conquistadors killed native elites and forced the native into forced labor in both mines and on the land. Next, he was sent to Mexico to rein in the ambitions Hernán Cortés: Cortés not only beat him in battle but took all of his men and went on to conquer the Aztec Empire. It was made by Constantine’s order a great “Labarum” – a long cross. Many view them as brutal and believe what they did to the natives to be barely human. Although he was richly rewarded, he still wanted more loot, so he set off with Gonzalo Pizarro and more than 200 Spanish conquistadors in search of the legendary city of El Dorado in 1541. It is important to say that the philosopher and Roman Catholic theologian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda justified the Spanish behaving with the Indians by warring against them using the reference to the pope’s blessing of the Spaniard venture in the Americas. And, he won the battle and civil war. After Columbus brought news of the new world to Europe many people went to the new world in search of land and riches. For example, only on one occasion, provoked by no one, the conquistadors butchered some 3000 Indians including children and women. He made a name for himself by ruthlessly participating in the conquest of Cuba, but there was little gold or glory to be had in the Caribbean. Contact address: firstname.lastname@example.org. To be a Spanish Conquistador wasn’t at all easy, it involved a dangerous boat journey to a land never seen before. His expedition was a disaster of colossal proportions: only four out of 300 men survived, and he was not among them. Alien microbes traveled more quickly compared to the West European conquerors themselves. The desire for gold. The Spanish conquistadors, as well, brought with them a form of racism that became derived from post-Reconquista Roman Catholic prejudice against converted Muslims and Jews. It is calculated that the death toll may have reached around 70 million native inhabitants of the New World out of 80 million in this period. 1 Communicable Diseases. Attack on the Aztecs and Mayas You probably had to be a little crazy … That's what inspired his voyage in the first place! Queen Isabella I, tried to improve the situation for the Native Americans by creating a system of indentured landholding, whereby the Indians were, in theory, to cultivate the land of the Spaniards four days a week having the rest of the week to take care of their own portions of land (the well-known system of corvée in feudal West Europe). Amable-Paul Coutan/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain. Francisco de Orellana was one of the lucky ones who got in early on Pizarro's conquest of the Inca. For instance, B. de Las Casas clearly wrote that sheer greed (especially for the gold and silver) was the focal stimulus that was behind the criminal deeds committed by the Spanish colonial authorities. Francisco Pizarro took a page from Cortes' book, capturing Atahualpa, Emperor of the... Lope de Aguirre, Madman of El Dorado. There were several reasons for such a demographic catastrophe of the Native Americans. He also inspired thousands of Spaniards to swarm to the New World to try and emulate him. In 1519, the ambitious Hernán Cortés set out from Cuba with 600 men on an expedition to the mainland in present-day Mexico. Conqueror of Mexico, Cortés was a born leader and a man prepared to take enormous risks. However, the peak of the demographic catastrophe of the native inhabitants in the Spanish colonies already occurred and, as a result, the Spaniards brought the black slaves from Portuguese Africa to the New World to do the harsh physical work that the Native Americans practiced previously to do in the first half of the 16th century. These unions produced mestizos and mulattos respectively. However, the newly brought peoples have been deprived of food, water and were housed in unsanitary dwellings. What Did Spanish Conquistadors Bring to the New World? It turned out to be present-day Florida, full of swamps, thick forests, and tough-as-nails natives who didn't appreciate visitors. They got their name from being both conquerors and explorers. Hernan Cortes had many subordinates in his epic conquest of the mighty Aztec Empire. University lecturer. Where were in the first spanish colonies located in the New World? They left their homes in Spain to spend months on board a rickety ship to the New World, then had to spend years in steamy jungles and frosty sierras, all the while fighting angry natives, hunger, fatigue, and disease. Millions of them died of diseases brought by the Iberians like influenza, measles, smallpox, or typhus. However, according to de Las Casas, more than 7000 children died of hunger when their parents were captured and forced to work in the mines. DOCUMENT 6 The excerpt below is from a letter written by Father Kino, a Catholic Priest, to a friend back in Spain. 10 Notable Spanish Conquistadors Throughout History Francisco Pizarro, Lord of Peru. Columbus did not come to the Americas to enslave or destroy its native peoples as he arrived just for gold, silver, and riches. In many cases, the local Indians in order to save their lives were running to the hills from their villages, and for those who left there were only two options: death or forced labor. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Population of the New World was Decimated . According to de Las Casas in his expression of grief written to the Spanish King Phillip II (1556−1598, who became the King of Portugal in 1580 as well), the Spanish colonists have been treating the native Indians worse than animals, having little concern for their souls as for the bodies. The natives rebelled on several occasions, but Pizarro and his brothers always managed to put these insurrections down. The West European idea of what to do with the Native Americans has been slowly in progress since the mid-16th century. Columbus’ design to transform the territories in the Caribbean into a prosperous slave trade for Spain was rejected by the Crown and he was imprisoned for a short while. Indeed, as Karl Marx and Adam Smith claimed, perhaps it … It was soon followed by forcing them to do harsh physical works that were fully exploited by the Spaniards. H. 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